A phase II randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study of salvage radiation therapy plus placebo versus SRT plus enzalutamide with high-risk PSA-recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (SALV-ENZA)

BMC Cancer. 2019 Jun 13;19(1):572. doi: 10.1186/s12885-019-5805-z.


Background: In men with a rising PSA following radical prostatectomy, salvage radiation therapy (SRT) offers a second chance for cure. Hormonal therapy can be combined with SRT in order to increase prostate tumor control, albeit with associated higher rates of treatment side effects. This trial studies the effectiveness of SRT combined with hormonal therapy using a more potent anti-androgen with a favorable side effect profile. Enzalutamide, a next generation selective androgen receptor antagonist, is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) where it has been shown to improve overall survival in combination with androgen deprivation therapy. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of combination SRT and enzalutamide for freedom-from-PSA-progression. Secondary objectives include time to local recurrence within the radiation field, metastasis-free survival and safety as determined by frequency and severity of adverse events.

Methods/design: This is a randomized, double-blind, phase II, prospective, multicenter study in adult males with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy. Following registration, enzalutamide 160 mg or placebo by mouth (PO) once daily will be administered for 6 months. Following two months of study drug, external beam radiotherapy to 66.6-70.2 Gray (Gy) will be administered to the prostate bed over 7-8 weeks while continuing daily placebo/enzalutamide. This is followed by two additional months of placebo/enzalutamide.

Discussion: The SALV-ENZA trial is the first phase II placebo-controlled double-blinded randomized study to test SRT in combination with a next generation androgen receptor antagonist in men with high-risk recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. The primary hypothesis of this study is that clinical outcomes will be improved by the addition of enzalutamide compared to standard-of-care SRT alone and pave the path for phase III evaluation of this combination.

Trial registrations: ClinicaltTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02203695 Date of Registration: 06/16/2014. Date of First Participant Enrollment: 04/16/2015.

Keywords: Enzalutamide; High-risk prostate cancer; Prostatectomy; Recurrent prostate cancer; Salvage radiation therapy (SRT).

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial Protocol
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / mortality
  • Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Androgen Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Phenylthiohydantoin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Phenylthiohydantoin / therapeutic use
  • Placebos
  • Prostatectomy
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / mortality
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / radiotherapy*
  • Salvage Therapy
  • Survival Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult


  • Androgen Receptor Antagonists
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Placebos
  • Phenylthiohydantoin
  • enzalutamide

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02203695