Background: Data on PCSK9 inhibition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes with evolocumab and placebo according to kidney function.
Methods: The FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk) trial randomized individuals with clinically evident atherosclerosis and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥70 mg/dl or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dl to evolocumab or placebo. The primary endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, or coronary revascularization), key secondary endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke), and safety were analyzed according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage estimated from CKD-epidemiology estimated glomerular filtration rate.
Results: There were 8,077 patients with preserved kidney function, 15,034 with stage 2 CKD, and 4,443 with ≥stage 3 CKD. LDL-C reduction with evolocumab compared with placebo at 48 weeks was similar across CKD groups at 59%, 59%, and 58%, respectively. Relative risk reduction for the primary endpoint was similar for preserved function (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71 to 0.94), stage 2 (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.77 to 0.94), and stage ≥3 CKD (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.05); pint = 0.77. Relative risk reduction for the secondary endpoint was similar across CKD stages (pint = 0.75)-preserved function (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.90), stage 2 (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.93), stage ≥3 (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.95). Absolute RRs at 30 months for the secondary endpoint were -2.5% (95% CI: -0.4% to -4.7%) for stage ≥3 CKD compared with -1.7% (95% CI: 0.5% to -2.8%) with preserved kidney function. Adverse events, including estimated glomerular filtration rate decline, were infrequent and similar regardless of CKD stage.
Conclusions: LDL-C lowering and relative clinical efficacy and safety of evolocumab versus placebo were consistent across CKD groups. Absolute reduction in the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke with evolocumab was numerically greater with more advanced CKD. (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk [FOURIER]; NCT01764633).
Keywords: PCSK9; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk; chronic kidney disease; lipids.
Copyright © 2019 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.