Purpose: To enable intrinsic and efficient fat suppression in 3D Cartesian fast interrupted steady-state (FISS) acquisitions.
Methods: A periodic interruption of the balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) readout train (FISS) has been previously proposed for 2D radial imaging. FISS modulates the bSSFP frequency response pattern in terms of shape, width and location of stop band (attenuated transverse magnetization). Depending on the FISS interruption rate, the stop band characteristic can be exploited to suppress the fat spectrum at 3.5 ppm, thus yielding intrinsic fat suppression. For conventional 2D Cartesian sampling, ghosting/aliasing artifacts along phase-encoding direction have been reported. In this work, we propose to extend FISS to 3D Cartesian imaging and report countermeasures for the previously observed ghosting/aliasing artifacts. Key parameters (dummy prepulses, spatial resolution, and interruption rate) are investigated to optimize fat suppression and image quality. FISS behavior is examined using extended phase graph simulations to recommend parametrizations which are validated in phantom and in vivo measurements on a 1.5T MRI scanner for 3 applications: upper thigh angiography, abdominal imaging, and free-running 5D CINE.
Results: Using optimized parameters, 3D Cartesian FISS provides homogeneous and consistent fat suppression for all 3 applications. In upper thigh angiography, vessel structures can be recovered in FISS that are obscured in bSSFP. Fat suppression in free-running cardiac CINE resulted in less fat-related motion aliasing and yielded better image quality.
Conclusion: 3D Cartesian FISS is feasible and offers homogeneous intrinsic fat suppression for selected imaging parameters without the need for dedicated preparation pulses, making it a promising candidate for free-running fat-suppressed imaging.
Keywords: 3D Cartesian; FISS; bSSFP; cardiovascular imaging; fat suppression; steady-state.
© 2019 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.