Here, changes in the serum level of total anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and its activated form in children of both sexes and women with different reproductive status are investigated. This TGFβ superfamily cytokine is known to provide the formation of the male-type reproductive system in mammalian embryogenesis, and regulate folliculogenesis, spermatogenesis and the balance of sex hormones after birth. The biologically active form of the hormone (aAMH) is formed as a result of limited proteolysis of the AMH molecule; it is not reliably known in which tissues and under the action of which enzyme it occurs. The serum level of aAMH seems to be a more informative clinical indicator than the content of total AMH (tAMH), but there are no ELISA systems at the world market that provide direct quantitative detection of aAMH. In this work, quantitative detection of total hormone (tAMH) and its biologically active form (aAMH) in serum was performed using specially developed enzyme immunoassay systems. We showed that in girls, the total serum AMH level, as well as the concentration ratio aAMH / tAMH, practically does not change with age, whereas in boys, there is not only a significant decrease in the total serum AMH level previously described in the literature (Pearson correlation coefficient R = - 0.86, p <0.001), but also in the ratios of the aAMH / tAMH level (R = -0.531, p <0.001). It was also found that in pregnant women, the amount of total AMH and the proportion of aAMH in serum was significantly higher (p <0.01 and p <0.001, respectively) than in the control group women. The obtained results are in good agreement with the available data on the total and activated AMH content in the blood serum of people of different sex and age and indicate a change in the ratio of aAMH / tAMH serum levels in pregnancy. These data may be important both for deepening the understanding of AMH biology and for interpreting the results obtained using AMH detection based diagnostics.
Keywords: AMH; ELISA; MIS; anti-mullerian hormone; postnatal life; pregnancy; proteolysis; serum.