[The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in late adolescents differs according to their gender]

Rev Alerg Mex. Apr-Jun 2019;66(2):147-153. doi: 10.29262/ram.v66i2.521.
[Article in Spanish]

Abstract
in En , Spanish

Background: In Mexico, there are very few studies aimed at establishing the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) and atopic dermatitis (AD) in late adolescents.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in late adolescents and compare it according to their gender.

Methods: A cross-sectional study that included 1992 15 to 18 year old adolescents who were recruited through a stratified and randomized probabilistic sample by clusters. The prevalence of AR (allergic rhinitis) and AD (atopic dermatitis) was identified with the questionnaire of "The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood".

Results: 1056 (53%) women and 936 (47%) men were included in the study. The prevalence of AR was 9.0% (95% CI = 7.8% - 10.4%); the frequency was higher in women (6.7% versus 11.1%, p = 0.001). The symptoms of rhinitis plus conjunctivitis predominated in women (16.0% versus 23.1%, p < 0.0001). The prevalence of AD was 5.2% (95% CI = 4.3% - 6.2%) and, once again, it was more frequent in women (7.7% versus 2.4%, p < 0.0001). The main factors associated with AR and AD were the female gender and a history of family atopic allergic diseases (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: There was a significant difference in the prevalence of AR and AD according to gender in late adolescents; women were most affected. In addition, a history of family atopic allergic diseases was another risk factor that was linked to both diseases.

Antecedentes: En México son escasos los estudios encaminados a establecer la prevalencia de la rinitis alérgica y la dermatitis atópica en adolescentes tardíos. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de rinitis alérgica y dermatitis atópica en adolescentes tardíos y compararla conforme el sexo. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 1992 adolescentes de 15 a 18 años, reclutados mediante muestreo probabilístico por conglomerados, estratificado y aleatorizado. Las prevalencias de rinitis alérgica y dermatitis atópica se identificaron con el cuestionario propuesto en The Internacional Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1056 mujeres (53 %) y 936 hombres (47 %). La prevalencia de rinitis alérgica fue de 9.0 % (IC 95 % = 7.8-10.4); la frecuencia fue mayor en las mujeres (6.7 % versus 11.1 %, p = 0.001). Los síntomas de rinitis más conjuntivitis predominaron en las mujeres (16.0 % versus 23.1 %, p < 0.0001). La prevalencia de dermatitis atópica fue de 5.2 % (IC 95 % = 4.3-6.2); fue más frecuente en las mujeres (7.7 % versus 2.4 %, p < 0.0001). Los principales factores asociados con rinitis alérgica y dermatitis atópica fueron sexo femenino y atopia familiar (p < 0.001). Conclusiones: Se registró diferencia significativa en la prevalencia de rinitis alérgica y dermatitis atópica conforme el sexo en los adolescentes tardíos; las mujeres fueron las más afectadas. La atopia familiar fue otro factor asociado.

Keywords: Allergic rhinitis; Atopic dermatitis; Late adolescent.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mexico / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Rhinitis, Allergic / epidemiology*
  • Sex Distribution