Objectives: To assess outcomes after secondary surgical resection in patients with recurrent uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS).
Methods: We retrospectively identified all patients who had no evidence of disease after initial surgery for uLMS, who underwent surgery for a first recurrence at our institution between 1/1991 and 10/2013. We excluded patients who received any therapy for recurrence prior to secondary resection, and patients who underwent surgery soon after morcellation [of presumed benign fibroids] showed widespread disease. Overall survival (OS) was determined from time of first recurrence to death or last follow-up.
Results: We identified 62 patients: 29 with abdominal/pelvic recurrence only, 30 with lung recurrence only, 3 with both. Median time to first recurrence was 18 months (95% CI: 13.3-23.3): 15.8 months (95% CI: 13.0-18.6) abdominal/pelvic recurrence; 24.1 months (95% CI: 14.5-33.7) lung-only recurrence (p = 0.03). Median OS was 37.7 months (95% CI: 25.9-49.6) abdominal/pelvic recurrence; 78.1 months (95% CI: 44.8-11.4) lung recurrence (p = 0.02). Complete gross resection (CGR) was achieved in 58 cases (93%), with gross residual ≤1 cm in 2 (3.5%) and >1 cm in 2 (3.5%). Median OS based on residual disease was 54.1 months (95% CI: 24.9-83.3), 38.7 months (95% CI: NE), 1.7 months (95% CI: NE), respectively (p < 0.001). In cases with CGR, neither adjuvant radiation (N = 9), chemotherapy (N = 8) nor hormonal therapy (N = 10) was associated with improved OS.
Conclusions: Secondary surgical resection of recurrent uLMS is reasonable in patients with a high probability of achieving CGR. Lung-only recurrences were associated with more favorable outcome. Following CGR, additional therapy may not offer benefit.
Keywords: Recurrence; Secondary surgery; Uterine leiomyosarcoma.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.