Recent studies report widespread usage or exposure to a variety of chemicals with structural or functional similarity to bisphenol A (BPA), referred to as BPA analogues or derivatives. These have been detected in foodstuffs, house dust, environmental samples, human urine or blood, and consumer products. Compared to BPA, relatively little is known about potential toxicity of these compounds. This scoping review aimed to summarize the human, animal, and mechanistic toxicity data for 24 BPA analogues of emerging interest to research and regulatory communities. PubMed was searched from March 1, 2015 to January 5, 2019 and combined with the results obtained from literature searches conducted through March 23, 2015, in The National Toxicology Program's Research Report 4 (NTP RR-04), "Biological Activity of Bisphenol A (BPA) Structural Analogues and Functional Alternatives". Study details are presented in interactive displays using Tableau Public. In total, 5748 records were screened for inclusion. One hundred sixty seven studies were included from NTP RR-04 and 175 studies were included from the updated literature search through January 2019. In total, there are 22, 117, and 221 human epidemiological, experimental animal, or in vitro studies included. The most frequently studied BPA analogues are bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (4,4-BPF), and bisphenol AF (BPAF). Notable changes in the literature since 2015 include the growing body of human epidemiological studies and in vivo studies conducted in zebrafish. Numerous new endpoints were also evaluated across all three evidence streams including diabetes, obesity, and oxidative stress. However, few studies have addressed endpoints such as neurodevelopmental outcomes or impacts on the developing mammary or prostate glands, which are known to be susceptible to disruption by BPA. Further, there remains a critical need for better exposure information in order to prioritize experimental studies. Moving forward, researchers should also ensure that full dose responses are performed for all main effects in order to support hazard and risk characterization efforts. The evidence gathered here suggests that hazard and risk characterizations should expand beyond BPA in order to consider BPA structural and functional analogues.
Keywords: Androgen; Bisphenol A; Bisphenol analogue; Endocrine disruptor; Estrogen; Tox21.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.