Flaviviruses and Kidney Diseases

Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2019 May;26(3):198-206. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2019.01.002.


The genus Flavivirus comprises approximately 73 viruses, which share several common aspects, such as dimension, structure, nucleic acid properties, and shape in electronic microscopy. Global incidence of flavivirus infection increased dramatically over the last decades, causing large outbreaks in several areas of the world. These viruses are expanding from endemic tropical and subtropical areas to previously nonendemic areas, affecting and causing diseases in millions of individuals worldwide and posing a formidable challenge to public health in several countries. The majority of clinically significant flavivirus-associated infections are mosquito borne (arboviruses-acronym for ARthropod-BOrne VIRUSES), such as dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Zika, and West Nile fever. Most diseases caused by flaviviruses are asymptomatic or manifest as self-limited, mild, undifferentiated febrile diseases. In a limited number of cases, these diseases may evolve to severe inflammatory, multisystem diseases, causing high morbidity and mortality. Some flaviviruses have been consistently identified in kidney tissue and urine and have been clinically associated with kidney diseases. In this review, we will provide an overview of the epidemiology, risk factors, kidney pathology, etiopathogenesis, and outcomes of acute and chronic kidney syndromes associated with dengue, yellow fever, Zika, and West Nile virus disease.

Keywords: Dengue; Kidney; West Nile viruses; Yellow fever; Zika.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / epidemiology*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / metabolism
  • Acute Kidney Injury / pathology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / virology
  • Dengue / epidemiology*
  • Dengue / metabolism
  • Dengue / pathology
  • Flavivirus
  • Flavivirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Flavivirus Infections / pathology
  • Humans
  • Mosquito Vectors
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / metabolism
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / pathology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / virology
  • Risk Factors
  • West Nile Fever / epidemiology*
  • West Nile Fever / metabolism
  • West Nile Fever / pathology
  • Yellow Fever / epidemiology*
  • Yellow Fever / metabolism
  • Yellow Fever / pathology
  • Zika Virus Infection / epidemiology*
  • Zika Virus Infection / metabolism
  • Zika Virus Infection / pathology