Purpose: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), leading to increased mortality and challenging prognostication. Our aim was to examine if urine biomarkers could early predict postarrest AKI and patient outcome.
Methods: A prospective observational study of resuscitated, comatose OHCA patients admitted to Oslo University Hospital in Norway. Urine samples were collected at admission and day three postarrest and analysed for β-2-microglobulin (β2M), osteopontin, and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). Outcome variables were AKI within three days according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome criteria, in addition to six-month mortality and poor neurological outcome (PNO) (cerebral performance category 3-5).
Results: Among 195 included patients (85% males, mean age 60 years), 88 (45%) developed AKI, 88 (45%) died, and 96 (49%) had PNO. In univariate analyses, increased urine β2M, osteopontin, and TFF3 levels sampled at admission and day three were independent risk factors for AKI, mortality, and PNO. Exceptions were that β2M measured at day three did not predict any of the outcomes, and TFF3 at admission did not predict AKI. In multivariate analyses, combining clinical parameters and biomarker levels, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (95% CI) were 0.729 (0.658-0.800), 0.797 (0.733-0.861), and 0.812 (CI 0.750-0.874) for AKI, mortality, and PNO, respectively.
Conclusions: Urine levels of β2M, osteopontin, and TFF3 at admission and day three were associated with increased risk for AKI, mortality, and PNO in comatose OHCA patients. This trail is registered with NCT01239420.