A monoclonal antibody, 1D8, which recognizes a cell-surface antigen expressed by human chromosome 3 in Chinese hamster-human somatic-cell hybrids, has been produced. Testing of hybrids containing various deletions of chromosome 3 determines that the gene encoding the antigen is regionally localized to 3q (cen-22). This regional mapping is distinct from that elsewhere reported for two other cell-surface antigens assigned to chromosome 3--namely, the human transferrin receptor and the p97 melanoma-associated antigen. In addition, biochemical characterization is different from that elsewhere reported for other chromosome 3-encoded cell-surface antigens. When tested against a panel of rare-phenotype red blood cells, the only cells that failed to react were those of the Rhnull phenotype. The antibody reacts only weakly with homozygous -D- and fetal red cells, in contrast with a previously described antibody, R6A, which does not react with Rhnull cells. Furthermore, R6A does not recognize a cell-surface antigen expressed by chromosome 3 in Chinese hamster-human somatic-cell hybrids. Thus, the monoclonal antibody 1D8 recognizes a previously undescribed cell-surface antigen encoded by human chromosome 3 and not expressed on Rhnull cells. The gene on chromosome 3 regulating expression of this antigen may be that defective in Rhnull disease or may require the normal allele at an unlinked Rhnull locus for expression. Linkage studies will be required to further elucidate this matter.