Background: The primary objective of this study was to identify the specific predictors of early and late stroke in patients after open heart surgery. Secondary outcomes included (a) risk factors for perioperative stroke, (b) anatomic location of stroke according to time of presentation, and (c) the impact of stroke on operative mortality.
Methods: Adult patients undergoing open cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass from 2006 to 2016 at the New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine were retrospectively reviewed. In total 7957 patients were included. We compared the demographic and perioperative variables in three groups: no stroke, early stroke, and late stroke using regression analysis.
Results: The incidence of perioperative stroke for the entire study period was 1.5% (117 of 7957). Early stroke occurred in 84 (71.8%) patients, whereas late stroke occurred in 33 (28.2%). Early strokes were usually embolic events (64 of 66, 97.0%, P = .66) on the right side (30 of 66, 45.5%, P < .001), in the anterior circulation (38 of 66, 57.6%, P = .001), or in multiple distributions (28 of 66, 42.4%, P = .002). Late strokes were more likely left-sided (16 of 28, 57.1%, P < .001) and uncommonly in both the anterior and posterior hemispheres (1 of 28, 3.6%, P = .001). Stroke, regardless of timing, was a significant predictor of operative mortality (odds ratio, 11.0, confidence interval, 6.1-19.7, P < .001).
Conclusions: Early and late strokes after cardiac surgery have distinct incidence, location, and likely etiology. Both early and late strokes portend a very high incidence of operative mortality.
Keywords: cardiac surgery; cardiovascular research; delayed post-operative stroke; early post-operative stroke.
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