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. 2019 Jun 17;9(6):891.
doi: 10.3390/nano9060891.

Multisensory System Used for the Analysis of the Water in the Lower Area of River Danube

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Free PMC article

Multisensory System Used for the Analysis of the Water in the Lower Area of River Danube

Constantin Apetrei et al. Nanomaterials (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The present paper describes the development of a multisensory system for the analysis of the natural water in the Danube, water collected in the neighboring area of Galati City. The multisensory system consists of a sensor array made up of six screen-printed sensors based on electroactive compounds (Cobalt phthalocyanine, Meldola's Blue, Prussian Blue) and nanomaterials (Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Multi-Walled Graphene, Gold Nanoparticles). The measurements with the sensors array were performed by using cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammograms recorded in the Danube natural water show redox processes related to the electrochemical activity of the compounds in the water samples or of the electro-active compounds in the sensors detector element. These processes are strongly influenced by the composition and physico-chemical properties of the water samples, such as the ionic strength or the pH. The multivariate data analysis was performed by using the principal component analysis (PCA) and the discriminant factor analysis (DFA), the water samples being discriminated according to the collection point. In order to confirm the observed classes, the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) method was used. The classification of the samples according to the collection point could be made accurately and with very few errors. The correlations established between the voltammetric data and the results of the physico-chemical analyses by using the PLS1 method were very good, the correlation coefficients exceeding 0.9. Moreover, the predictive capacity of the multisensory system is very good, the differences between the measured and the predicted values being less than 3%. The multisensory system based on voltammetric sensors and on multivariate data analysis methods is a viable and useful tool for natural water analysis.

Keywords: Danube; carbon nanofiber; carbon nanotube; cyclic voltammetry; data analysis; gold nanoparticle; graphene; nanomaterial; sensor; water.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Sensor response (a) CoPc-SPE; (b) MB-SPE; (c) PB-SPE; (d) MWCNT/GNP-SPE; (e) MWCNF/GNP-SPE; (f) MWGPH/GNP-SPE exposed to the DL water sample.
Figure 2
Figure 2
The voltammetric responses of the PB-SPE sensor exposed to all water samples (a) PD; (b) DS; (c) CP; (d) DP; (e) GR; (f) LN.
Figure 3
Figure 3
(a) Scores plot of the responses produced by the voltammetric sensor array when exposed to different water samples (wherein: (1) PD; (2) DS; (3) DL; (4) CP; (5) DP; (6) GR; (7) LN). (b) PCA loadings plot of the water samples from the voltammetric sensor array (wherein: 1–10 CoPc-SPE; 11–20 MB-SPE; 21–30 PB-SPE; 31–40 MWCNT/GNP-SPE; 41–50 MWCNF/GNP-SPE; 51–60 MWGPH/GNP-SPE).
Figure 4
Figure 4
The results of the discriminant factor analysis (DFA) model.
Figure 5
Figure 5
The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores plot.
Figure 6
Figure 6
The graph of the correlation between the pH values predicted by the voltammetric sensors versus the values of the pH determined by the potentiometric method.

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