Recent advances have highlighted the ability of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow to sense peripheral inflammation or infection and adapt through increased proliferation and skewing toward the myeloid lineage. Such adaptations can meet the increased demand for innate immune cells and can be beneficial in response to infection or myeloablation. However, the inflammation-induced adaptation of hematopoietic and myeloid progenitor cells toward enhanced myelopoiesis might also perpetuate inflammation in chronic inflammatory or cardio-metabolic diseases by generating a feed-forward loop between inflammation-adapted hematopoietic progenitor cells and the inflammatory disorder. Sustained adaptive responses of progenitor cells in the bone marrow can also contribute to trained immunity, a non-specific memory of earlier encounters that in turn facilitates the heightened response of these cells, as well as that of their progeny, to future challenges. Here we discuss the mechanisms that govern the adaptation of hematopoietic progenitor cells to inflammation and its sequelae in the pathogenesis of human disease.