Inflammatory processes associated with persistent (chronic) infection have long been discussed as etiological factors in psychiatric disorders. Studies have found that people with major depression have higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, for example, IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and C-reactive protein. In schizophrenia, many reports have described raised levels of cytokines, for example, IL-6; and meta-analyses have confirmed these findings. Microglia cells are important in inflammatory processes, and positron emission tomography studies have shown microglia activation in both depression and schizophrenia.As a consequence of the above findings, immunomodulation is widely discussed as a potential treatment approach in both major depression and schizophrenia. The COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib was found to have a significant positive effect on major depression, not only in single studies but also in meta-analyses. Celecoxib has also been studied in schizophrenia and has shown efficacy, in particular, in early disease stages. The mixed COX inhibitor aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) seems to have both protective and therapeutic effects on schizophrenia.This paper discusses the hypothesized role of inflammation in major depression and schizophrenia, including markers of inflammation; pertinent studies on celecoxib and aspirin; and additional immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies.
Keywords: COX-2 inhibition; Inflammation; aspirin; major depression; psychiatry; psychoneuroimmunology; schizophrenia.
The Role of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in the Neuroinflammation and Neurogenesis of SchizophreniaKS Na et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 48, 277-86. PMID 23123365. - ReviewSchizophrenia is a serious mental illness with chronic symptoms and significant impairment in psychosocial functioning. Although novel antipsychotics have been developed, …
Immunological Aspects of the Treatment of Depression and SchizophreniaN Müller. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 19 (1), 55-63. PMID 28566947. - ReviewSchizophrenia and major depression (MD) have been associated with immune system dysfunction. One example of this is the altered level of cytokines-important inflammatory …
The Role of Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Psychiatric DisordersN Müller. Psychiatr Danub 25 (3), 292-8. PMID 24048400. - ReviewAnti-inflammatory treatment could be expected to show positive effects in the subgroup of psychiatric patients who show signs of inflammation, i.e. an increase in proinfl …
Are Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Clinically Suitable for the Treatment of Symptoms in Depression-Associated Inflammation?BT Baune. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 31, 303-319. PMID 27405497. - ReviewThe aetiology and pathophysiology of depression have long been associated with inflammation, at least in a proportion of patients. Altered cytokine activity in the periph …
Dose-dependent Immunomodulatory Effects of Acetylsalicylic Acid and Indomethacin in Human Whole Blood: Potential Role of cyclooxygenase-2 InhibitionC Härtel et al. Scand J Immunol 60 (4), 412-20. PMID 15379866.The aim of the study was to characterize the in vitro effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a human …
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