A simple and low cost tetra-primer ARMS-PCR method for detection triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus

Mol Biol Rep. 2019 Aug;46(4):4537-4543. doi: 10.1007/s11033-019-04909-1. Epub 2019 Jun 18.


The mutation at codon L98 accompanied by a tandem repeat of 34 base pairs (TR34/L98H) in the 5´upstream region of cyp51A is the principal mechanism of triazole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus. We aimed to evaluate a simple and low-cost tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR technique for detection of TR34/L98H mutations in the cyp51A gene of azole-resistant A. fumigatus. The tetra-primer ARMS-PCR assay optimized by four primers in one reaction consists of external primers for detection of tandem repeats in the promoter region and internal primers for detection of a point mutation in codon 98 (L98H) in the cyp51A gene of azole-resistant A. fumigatus. The specificity of TR34/L98H mutation detection was assessed by testing 36 clinical and environmental A. fumigatus strains. The tetra-primer ARMS-PCR assay from A. fumigatus, containing wild-type sequence (T allele) and L98H mutation at cyp51A (A allele), yielded two DNA fragments of 908 bp and 740 bp and two of 942 bp and 212 bp, respectively. None of the A. fumigatus isolates without the TR34/L98H mutation yielded false-positive results. The ARMS-PCR assay was 100% concordant with DNA sequencing results. Prevalence and screening of the TR34/L98H mutation in the cyp51A gene in A. fumigatus isolates may now be determined by a fast, low-cost, and simple method in resource-poor settings.

Keywords: ARMS-PCR; Aspergillus fumigatus; TR34/L98H mutation; Triazole-resistance; cyp51A.

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Aspergillus fumigatus / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics*
  • DNA Primers / genetics
  • Drug Resistance, Fungal / genetics*
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics*
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Mutation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences
  • Triazoles / pharmacology


  • DNA Primers
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Triazoles
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • cytochrome P-450 CYP51A, Aspergillus