The effects of amniotic fluid and foetal cord blood cotinine concentrations on pregnancy complications and the anthropometric measurements of newborns

J Obstet Gynaecol. 2019 Oct;39(7):952-958. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2019.1599834. Epub 2019 Jun 19.


Our objective was determining the effects of amniotic fluid (AF) and fetal cord blood (FCB) cotinine concentrations on pregnancy complications and the anthropometric measurements in the newborns whose mothers underwent amniocentesis. This study was conducted as a case-control study, in Turkey. A total of 250 pregnant women with amniocentesis indication were recruited into the study and the cotinine levels in the AF and FCB were determined. A smoking habit did not statistically affect the incidence of pregnancy complications (p>.05). The birth weights of the newborns were negatively correlated with the AF cotinine levels. The incidences of low birth weight, low Apgar scores and RDS were positively correlated with higher levels of cotinine in AF and FCB. It is important for healthcare staff to provide training and consultancy services for the health improvement of pregnant women and the prevention of smoking during pregnancy. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? The pre-pregnancy smoking habit usually continues during the pregnancy. A significant negative correlation was present between the foetal cord blood cotinine levels and the birth weight. What do the results of this study add? The anthropometric measurements of the newborns born from mothers with high AF cotinine levels were lower than newborns born from mothers with low amniotic fluid cotinine levels. Respiratory Distress syndrome is more often determined in newborns born from mothers with high AF cotinine levels. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Future studies should be performed to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on the health problems, the growth characteristics and the neurological development of newborns and infants within the first year of life.

Keywords: Smoking; amniocentesis; cotinine; foetal cord blood; newborn complications; pregnancy complications.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amniotic Fluid / chemistry*
  • Anthropometry
  • Birth Weight*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cotinine / blood*
  • Female
  • Fetal Blood / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / blood*
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn / blood
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn / epidemiology
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn / etiology
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Smoking / blood
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects
  • Turkey / epidemiology


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Cotinine