OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to show the performance and evaluate the factors influencing the positivity rate (PR) of commercially produced 18F-fluciclovine PET/CT in the detection of recurrent prostate cancer in clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 152 men who had suspected biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after receiving initial treatment and underwent fluciclovine PET/CT. PRs were calculated for whole-body, prostate and prostate bed, and extraprostatic locations. The influence of different factors, such as the absolute prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, PSA kinetics, the Gleason score, and Gleason grade groups, on the PR was evaluated. RESULTS. The overall PR was 81% (123/152) for the whole body, 61% (92/152) for the prostate and prostate bed, and 55% (83/152) for extraprostatic locations. There was a linear increase in the PR with an increasing PSA level (p < 0.001). For the whole body, the PR for PSA levels of less than 1 ng/mL, 1 to less than 2 ng/mL, 2 to less than 5 ng/mL, and 5 or more ng/mL were 58% (32/55), 87% (13/15), 100% (39/39), and 92% (35/38), respectively. No statistically significant linear trend was found between the PR and the PSA level doubling time (p > 0.05). In addition, no statistically significant linear trend was found between the PR and increasing Gleason grade group. However, for every 1-unit increase in a patient's Gleason score, the odds of a positive finding in the extraprostatic location increased by 49% (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION. Commercially produced fluciclovine PET/CT has a high PR for detection of prostate cancer recurrence and is positively correlated with increasing PSA levels. For extraprostatic disease, the PR increases with higher Gleason scores.
Keywords: Axumin; FACBC; PET/CT; fluciclovine; prostate.