Purpose: The aim of this multicentre, retrospective, observational study was to determine the incidence of revision and clinical results of a large cohort of robotic-arm-assisted medial and lateral UKAs at short-term follow-up. It was hypothesized that patients who receive robotic-arm-assisted UKA will have high survivorship rates and satisfactory clinical results.
Methods: Between 2013 and 2016, 437 patients (470 knees) underwent robotic-arm-assisted medial and lateral UKAs at two centres. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Forgotten Joint Score 12 (FJS-12) and Short-Form Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales (SF-12) were administered to estimate patients' overall health status pre- and post-operatively. Results were dichotomized as 'excellent' and 'poor' if KOOS/FJS-12 were more than or equal to 90 and SF-12 was more or equal to 45. Associations between patients' demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes were investigated. Post-operative complications and pain persistence were recorded.
Results: Following exclusions and losses to follow-up, 338 medial and 67 lateral robotic-arm-assisted UKAs were assessed at a mean follow-up of 33.5 and 36.3 months, respectively. Three medial UKAs were revised, resulting in a survivorship of 99.0%. No lateral implants underwent revision (survivorship 100%). On average, significant improvement in all clinical scores was reported in both medial and lateral UKA patients. In medial UKA patients, male gender was associated with higher probability of better scores in overall KOOS, FJS-12 and in specific KOOS subscales. No other associations were reported between biometric parameters and outcome for either medial or lateral UKA.
Conclusions: Robotic-assisted medial and lateral UKAs demonstrated satisfactory clinical outcomes and excellent survivorship at 3-year follow-up. Continued patient follow-up is needed to determine the long-term device performance and clinical satisfaction.
Level of evidence: Retrospective cohort study, Level IV.
Keywords: Clinical outcome; Robotic arm; Survivorship; UKA.