Background: Considering the increasing burden of cardiovascular risk factors and recent advances on the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), we studied the epidemiological characteristics and treatment strategies of patients presenting with ACS. We also evaluated the lipid profile and attainment of lipid goals in a 'real world' clinical setting.Methods: This was a substudy of IDEAL-LDL (Motivational interviewing to support low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) therapeutic goals and lipid-lowering therapy compliance in patients with acute coronary syndromes), a single-centre, prospective, randomised controlled trial. Baseline data from a total of 357 ACS patients were gathered using standardised methods.Results: Median age of patients was 60 years and 81.2% were males. Arterial hypertension and smoking were the most prevalent risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were heavier smokers, but were younger and exercised more compared to those with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Conversely, more NSTE-ACS patients had arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus. One-fifth of ACS patients was treated conservatively without a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A combination of statin, dual antiplatelet therapy and beta-blockers were prescribed to 79.6% of patients upon discharge. A renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor and a beta-blocker were prescribed to 67.3 and 91.8% of patients with LVEF ≤40%, respectively. Of patients with prior history of CAD, 63.1%, 71.4% and 58.3% received regularly statins, antiplatelets and beta-blocker treatment, respectively. Only 22.3% of these CAD patients had an optimal LDL-C of <70 mg/dl at admission.Conclusions: In hospitalised patients with ACS, management practices differed by ACS type and discharge medication was, mostly, in line with the latest guidelines. However, medication adherence and lipid lowering goals of secondary CAD prevention were largely unachieved.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02927808.
Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome; epidemiology; lipid profile; statin therapy.