Management of the protuberant premaxilla: where does it fit in?

Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019 Aug;27(4):302-309. doi: 10.1097/MOO.0000000000000558.


Purpose of review: To discuss multidisciplinary treatment options for the protuberant premaxilla associated with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Lessons have been learned throughout the years regarding the effect of growth restriction after early and aggressive therapy. Multiple surgical and orthodontic interventions are discussed. Recent literature will be highlighted and discussed.

Recent findings: A paucity of long-term studies was noted. Recent literature revealed numerous studies introducing innovative presurgical orthopedic devices as less expensive and easier to use alternatives to nasoalveolar molding. Multiple approaches to premaxillary setback were presented, offering multiple approaches to improve success rates and minimize burden to the patient. Novel orthodontic and advanced microvascular procedures were discussed as additional tools for treatment of the malpositioned premaxilla once skeletal maturity is reached.

Summary: Multidisciplinary team management of the protuberant premaxilla and bilateral cleft lip and palate is becoming increasingly embraced worldwide. Numerous surgical procedures and orthodontic treatments are required to optimally reposition the premaxilla; however, these interventions can inhibit growth, resulting in maxillary retrusion. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to determine what protocol is best. Studies should also include ways to overcome barriers to treatment success, such as late intervention, resource disparity, and limited access to care.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cleft Lip / surgery*
  • Cleft Palate / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Maxilla / abnormalities*
  • Maxilla / surgery*
  • Microsurgery / methods
  • Orthodontics, Corrective / methods*
  • Orthognathic Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Orthopedic Procedures / methods