Combined adjuvant effect of ginseng stem-leaf saponins and selenium on immune responses to a live bivalent vaccine of Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in chickens

Poult Sci. 2019 Sep 1;98(9):3548-3556. doi: 10.3382/ps/pez207.


Vaccination with a live bivalent vaccine of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a routine practice in poultry industry in China. This study was designed to evaluate ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) in combination with selenium (Se) for their adjuvant effect on the immune response to vaccination against NDV and IBV in chickens. A live bivalent vaccine of NDV and IBV was diluted in saline solution containing GSLS or Se or both and used to immunize chickens via a intraocular-and-intranasal route. Results showed that GSLS promoted significantly higher NDV- and IBV-specific antibody responses with the highest antibody response detected in GSLS-Se group. The increased antibody was capable of neutralizing NDV and IBV. In addition, GSLS-Se enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and production of IFN-γ and IL-4. More importantly GSLS-Se was found to promote early production and prolong the duration of the antibody responses. In order to improve the efficacy of vaccination in chicken flocks, the diluent containing GSLS-Se deserves further studies to evaluate its effect on other chicken vaccines.

Keywords: Newcastle disease; ginseng stem-leaf saponins; infectious bronchitis; selenium.

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Chickens*
  • Coronavirus Infections / immunology
  • Coronavirus Infections / veterinary
  • Immunity
  • Infectious bronchitis virus / immunology
  • Newcastle Disease / immunology
  • Newcastle disease virus / immunology
  • Panax / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Poultry Diseases / immunology*
  • Saponins / chemistry
  • Saponins / pharmacology*
  • Selenium / pharmacology*
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / immunology
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology*


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Plant Extracts
  • Saponins
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Viral Vaccines
  • Selenium