Recent advances in body composition evaluation have demonstrated abnormalities in skeletal muscle in patients with cirrhosis. Sarcopenia (severe muscle depletion) and myosteatosis (pathological fat accumulation in muscle) are prevalent muscle abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis that confer poor prognosis. Sarcopenia has become a well-defined factor for adverse clinical outcomes pre- and post-liver transplantation and emerging evidence has suggested the prognostic significance of myosteatosis in predicting mortality and overt hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Advances in the understating of these muscle abnormalities might help improve therapeutic interventions to correct them and potentially improve outcomes of patients with cirrhosis. Moreover, inclusion of these muscle abnormalities within the current organ allocation policies might lead to a better mortality risk assessment in patients awaiting liver transplant and even to a decrease in the rates of futile liver transplants. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the modalities to evaluate skeletal muscle abnormalities in cirrhosis, the incidence and clinical impact of these abnormalities in cirrhosis; existing and potential novel therapeutic strategies are also discussed.
Keywords: Chronic liver disease; Liver transplantation; Myosteatosis; Sarcopenia.
Copyright © 2019 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Myosteatosis and Sarcopenia Are Associated With Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients With CirrhosisRA Bhanji et al. Hepatol Int 12 (4), 377-386. PMID 29881992.Myosteatosis and sarcopenia are independently associated with overt hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. The association between hepatic encephalopathy and …
Role of Nutrition and Muscle in CirrhosisRB Thandassery et al. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 14 (2), 257-73. PMID 27023701. - ReviewMost widely recognized complications in cirrhotic patients include ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, kidney dysfunction, and hepatocellular carcinoma; h …
Muscle Alterations Are Associated With Minimal and Overt Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients With Liver CirrhosisS Nardelli et al. Hepatology 70 (5), 1704-1713. PMID 31038758.Muscle alterations (myosteatosis and sarcopenia) are frequent in cirrhosis and related to some complications including overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The aim of our s …
Sarcopenic Obesity and Myosteatosis Are Associated With Higher Mortality in Patients With CirrhosisAJ Montano-Loza et al. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 7 (2), 126-35. PMID 27493866.Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and myosteatosis are often present in patients with cirrhosis, and sarcopenia and myosteatosis are independently associated with a higher l …
New Concepts in Liver Cirrhosis: Clinical Significance of Sarcopenia in Cirrhotic PatientsAJ Montano-Loza. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 59 (2), 173-86. PMID 23831908. - ReviewThe natural history of cirrhotic patients is highly variable due to several factors including hepatic synthetic function, presence and degree of portal hypertension, the …
Cited by 1 PubMed Central articles
Sarcopenia in Cirrhosis: From Pathogenesis to InterventionsM Ebadi et al. J Gastroenterol 54 (10), 845-859. PMID 31392488. - ReviewSarcopenia (severe muscle depletion) is a prevalent muscle abnormality in patients with cirrhosis that confers poor prognosis both pre- and post-liver transplantation. Th …