Economic and Clinical Burden of Relapsed and/or Refractory Active Treatment Episodes in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) in the USA: A Retrospective Analysis of a Commercial Payer Database

Adv Ther. 2019 Aug;36(8):1922-1935. doi: 10.1007/s12325-019-01003-7. Epub 2019 Jun 20.


This retrospective study estimated healthcare resource use (HRU), symptoms and toxicities (SxTox), and costs in relapsed/refractory (R/R) patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), stratified by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) status. Claims data were used to identify adult patients with AML diagnoses from 1 January 2008 to 31 March 2016 in the USA. Patients were considered R/R if they had an AML relapse ICD-9 code (205.02) or a line of therapy consistent with R/R disease. The final R/R sample (N = 707) included 476 patients with and 231 patients without HSCT. The mean total episode cost (from relapse date to death or end of study period) for all patients was $439,104 (with HSCT $524,595 and without HSCT $263,310). Inpatient visits accounted for the greatest cost component (mean $308,978) followed by intensive care unit stays (mean $221,537), non-clinician (e.g., lab tests) visits (mean $30,909), and outpatient pharmacy utilization (mean $24,640). Patients with HSCT appeared to have longer episodes of care compared with patients without HSCT (16.8 vs 11.1 months), perhaps reflecting longer survival for HSCT patients. Mean number of visits within each category and their associated costs appeared to be higher in patients with HSCT compared with patients without HSCT. Patients with HSCT appeared to experience more SxTox compared with patients without HSCT across all categories. Results of the current study suggest that there is a substantial HRU and cost burden on R/R AML patients in the USA receiving active treatments. More effective therapies with improved tolerability would meet this tremendous unmet need in the R/R AML population.Funding: Astellas Pharma, Inc.

Keywords: Acute myeloid leukemia; Cost; Healthcare burden; Healthcare utilization; Relapsed/refractory; Symptoms and toxicities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Costs and Cost Analysis / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / economics*
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / epidemiology
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • United States / epidemiology

Associated data

  • figshare/10.6084/m9.figshare.8158901