The role of autoantibody testing for patients with interstitial lung disease is an evolving area. Recent guidelines recommend routine anti-nuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide antibody testing for patients undergoing diagnostic evaluation for interstitial lung disease, with further autoantibody testing reserved for selected cases guided by rheumatological features. Even this approach may miss patients with clinically significant autoantibodies when interstitial lung disease is the dominant or first manifestation of autoimmune disease. We retrospectively performed autoimmune serology in a clinically well characterised cohort of interstitial lung disease patients. Using stored serum, additional testing was performed to ensure all patients had complete autoantibody profiles including anti-nuclear antibodies, extractable nuclear antigen antibodies, double-stranded DNA antibodies, rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide antibodies, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, and myositis antibodies. Eighty patients with interstitial lung disease, and available stored serum, were assessed. Mean age at interstitial lung disease diagnosis was 65.2 years and 42 patients were male. Positive autoimmune serology was found in 56 of 80 (70.0%) patients; the most common positive result was anti-nuclear antibodies (n=34; 42.5%). Myositis antibodies were detected in 13 of 80 (16.2%) patients. Four (5%) patients had elevated anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide antibodies, and two (2.5%) patients had detectable myeloperoxidase antibodies. Eleven (13.7%) patients with negative anti-nuclear antibodies had other significant disease associated autoantibodies. An extended panel of autoantibody testing may detect cases of connective tissue disease associated interstitial lung disease, regardless of clinical or radiological subtype, and prior to extra-pulmonary manifestations of systemic autoimmunity.
Keywords: Lung diseases; connective tissue diseases; interstitial; serology.
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