Skull Base Enchondroma and Chondrosarcoma in Ollier Disease and Maffucci Syndrome

World Neurosurg. 2019 Oct:130:e356-e361. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.06.087. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Abstract

Background: Maffucci syndrome (MS) and Ollier disease (OD) are rare diseases characterized by multiple benign enchondromas. The incidence of skull base (SB) enchondromas and the risk of malignant transformation remain unknown. Most SB lesions are asymptomatic, and surgical resection carries significant morbidity. Observation may be a reasonable strategy. We report our experience with observation of probable SB enchondromas in MS/OD patients.

Methods: Retrospective review of OD/MS patients with cranial imaging between 1995 and 2018 at 1 institution.

Results: 14 patients were included: 3 with MS (21.4%) and 11 with OD (78.6%). The median age was 28 years (range, 11-74 years) and 57.1% were female. Extracranial chondrosarcoma was reported in 3 (21.4%) patients. Seven (50%) patients with SB enchondroma or chondrosarcoma were identified on initial imaging. In patients with SB lesions, the indications for imaging were headache (n=3), seizure (n=1), and diplopia (n=1); 2 cases were incidental findings. The most commonly involved structures were petroclival fissure (86%) and clivus (71%). Treatment included observation (6/7) and resection (1/7). Follow-up imaging was available for all SB lesions, with a mean interval of 50.7 months (range, 5-225 months) and was negative for progression in all patients.

Conclusions: Primary SB lesions in OD/MS patients frequently present in the petroclival junction. Cranial screening and close observation should be considered in MS/OD patients, given the increased risk of intra-axial intracranial tumors, de novo chondrosarcomas, or malignant degeneration of previously known lesions. In asymptomatic patients, observation appears to be a safe strategy in this cohort. Further case accumulation and follow-up are required to better understand the long-term outcomes.

Keywords: Chondrosarcoma; Enchondroma; Maffucci; Ollier; Skull base; Transformation.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bone Neoplasms / complications
  • Bone Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Bone Neoplasms / pathology
  • Child
  • Chondroma / complications
  • Chondroma / epidemiology*
  • Chondroma / pathology
  • Chondrosarcoma / complications
  • Chondrosarcoma / epidemiology*
  • Chondrosarcoma / pathology
  • Enchondromatosis / complications
  • Enchondromatosis / epidemiology*
  • Enchondromatosis / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Skull Base Neoplasms / complications
  • Skull Base Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology
  • Young Adult