Analysis of the Clinical Characteristics and Follow-up Study of Children with Cutaneous Polyarteritis Nodosa

Curr Neurovasc Res. 2019;16(3):208-214. doi: 10.2174/1567202616666190618112705.


Objective: This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of children with cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPAN), in order to improve the understanding of this disease.

Methods: Data of 14 children with CPAN, who were hospitalized in the Beijing Children's Hospital of Capital Medical University from January 2006 to December 2016, were collected. The clinical characteristics of all patients were summarized, the antistreptolysin-O (ASO)-positive and ASO-negative groups were compared, and the follow-up results were analyzed. X2-test, Fisher's exact probability test, t-test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis.

Results: Among these 14 CPAN patients, nodular rash was the most common manifestation (14/14). The ASO-positive group had more nodules in the lower limbs and the ASO-negative group appeared more in the upper limbs, which were statistically significant (p<0.05). ASOpositive children were more likely to have joint symptoms (P<0.05), and were more prone to elevated white blood cells (P<0.05). Follow-ups were performed on nine patients, and the prognoses were all good. The occurrence of systemic polyarteritis nodosa was not observed.

Conclusion: The main clinical manifestation of children with CPAN is skin nodules, which rarely affects the internal organs. Streptococcal infection is often the main cause. Anti-infection treatment should be simultaneously considered.

Keywords: Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPAN); aneurysm; children; group A β-hemolytic streptococcus; infection; mutation..

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Exanthema / diagnosis
  • Exanthema / drug therapy
  • Exanthema / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Polyarteritis Nodosa / diagnosis*
  • Polyarteritis Nodosa / drug therapy
  • Polyarteritis Nodosa / physiopathology*


  • Glucocorticoids