Cutaneous pseudolymphoma-A review on the spectrum and a proposal for a new classification

J Cutan Pathol. 2020 Jan;47(1):76-97. doi: 10.1111/cup.13532. Epub 2019 Jul 31.


Cutaneous pseudolymphomas (PSLs) belong to a group of lymphocytic infiltrates that histopathologically and/or clinically simulate lymphomas. Different causative agents (e.g., Borrelia sp., injected substances, tattoo, arthropod bite) have been described, but in many cases no cause can be identified, hence the term idiopathic PSL. Clinicopathological correlation is important to make the diagnosis. Four main groups of cutaneous PSL can be distinguished based on histopathologic and/or clinical presentation: (a) nodular PSL; (b) pseudo-mycosis fungoides (pseudo-MF) and simulators of other CTCLs; (c) other PSL (representing distinct clinical entities); and (d) intravascular PSL. This article gives an overview of the histopathologic and clinical characteristics of cutaneous PSLs and proposes a new classification.

Keywords: B-cell lymphoma; Borreliosis; T-cell lymphoma; clonality; cutaneous pseudolymphoma; infection; tattoo.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Borrelia / metabolism
  • Borrelia Infections / classification
  • Borrelia Infections / metabolism
  • Borrelia Infections / pathology
  • Humans
  • Pseudolymphoma* / classification
  • Pseudolymphoma* / metabolism
  • Pseudolymphoma* / pathology
  • Skin Neoplasms* / classification
  • Skin Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Skin Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Tattooing / adverse effects