Rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20-antibody, attracts increasing attention as a treatment option for multiple sclerosis (MS). Apart from smaller controlled trials, an increasing number of studies in real-world populations indicate high efficacy based on clinical and neuroradiological outcomes for rituximab in relapsing-remitting MS patients. Additional evidence also demonstrates efficacy of rituximab with treatment of progressive MS phenotypes. In this topical review, we summarize and discuss current evidence on mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, tolerance and other clinical aspects of rituximab in the treatment of MS. Finally, we will highlight current knowledge gaps and the need for comparative studies with other disease-modifying therapies in MS.
Keywords: MRI; Rituximab; anti-CD20; biomarkers; clinical trial; treatment response.