Background: The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of inherited, progressive, multi-system lysosomal storage disorders. Musculoskeletal manifestations include nerve entrapment syndromes, most commonly carpal tunnel syndrome. Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) has also been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical course of MPS patients with suspected TTS and to conduct a literature review of TTS in MPS.
Methods: A review of the Medline and EMBASE databases was conducted in accordance with published guidelines from the Joanna Briggs Institute of Evidence Based Medicine with search strategy developed by a librarian trained in systematic reviews. A medical record review was undertaken for all patients managed in the multi-disciplinary MPS clinic in a tertiary referral paediatric centre, identifying patients with a suspected or established diagnosis of TTS. Data regarding the demographics, investigations, presentation, management, and clinical course were collected.
Results: The literature review failed to identify any published papers regarding TTS in MPS, with conference proceedings only identified. Within a cohort of 19 MPS patients, four patients with a suspected diagnosis of TTS were identified (MPS I: two patients, MPS VI: two patients). Three patients underwent surgical tarsal tunnel decompression, two with good result. One patient had overlapping symptoms with spinal stenosis and improvement in suspected tarsal tunnel symptoms following spinal decompression and fusion.
Keywords: decompression, surgical; genetic diseases, inborn; mucopolysaccharidoses; orthopaedics; paediatrics; tarsal tunnel syndrome.