Chromosomal aberrations in women with primary and secondary amenorrhea: A cross-sectional study

J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2019 Aug;45(8):1497-1505. doi: 10.1111/jog.14006. Epub 2019 Jun 26.


Aim: Among women of childbearing age, about 2-5% are affected by amenorrhea that is either primary or secondary. However, there are no data regarding the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities associated with amenorrhea in Saudi women. The present study aims to establish the frequency and pattern of chromosomal abnormalities in primary amenorrhea (PA) and secondary amenorrhea (SA) cases in a tertiary care center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2013 and 2016 on women referred to the Reproductive Endocrine and Infertility Medicine Department at a tertiary care center in Riyadh. Women were divided into two groups: PA and SA. After the initial diagnosis of amenorrhea based on medical history, physical examination, hormonal profile and ultrasonography, chromosome karyotype analysis was conducted on metaphase preparations following routine cytogenetics culture and harvest methods.

Results: Chromosomal tests were performed for 53 patients (42 with PA and 11 with SA) out of 79 referred patients with amenorrhea. About 19% of the 42 patients with PA and 1 patient (9.1%) diagnosed as SA showed an abnormal karyotype. The most common abnormal karyotypes observed were 46, XY and 45, X.

Conclusion: The present study indicates that the chromosomal analysis after the exclusion of nongenetic causes should be essentially considered for the precise diagnosis and the development of more successful management for females with amenorrhea. This study also revealed that the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in women with PA and SA is similar to that reported in the literature.

Keywords: Saudi; amenorrhea; chromosome aberration; karyotyping.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormal Karyotype / statistics & numerical data*
  • Adult
  • Amenorrhea / epidemiology*
  • Amenorrhea / genetics*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Karyotyping
  • Saudi Arabia / epidemiology
  • Sex Chromosome Aberrations / statistics & numerical data*
  • Turner Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Young Adult

Supplementary concepts

  • 46, XY female