African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the cause of a highly fatal disease in swine, for which there is no available vaccine. The disease is highly contagious and poses a serious threat to the swine industry worldwide. Since its introduction to the Caucasus region in 2007, a highly virulent, genotype II strain of ASFV has continued to circulate and spread into Eastern Europe and Russia, and most recently into Western Europe, China, and various countries of Southeast Asia. This review summarizes various ASFV vaccine strategies that have been investigated, with focus on antigen-, DNA-, and virus vector-based vaccines. Known ASFV antigens and the determinants of protection against ASFV versus immunopathological enhancement of infection and disease are also discussed.
Keywords: ASFV; African swine fever virus; antibody dependent enhancement; antigens; disease enhancement; immunogens; protective immunity; subunit vaccines; vaccines.