Review of the Role of Fluid Dairy in Delivery of Polyphenolic Compounds in the Diet: Chocolate Milk, Coffee Beverages, Matcha Green Tea, and Beyond

J AOAC Int. 2019 Sep 1;102(5):1365-1372. doi: 10.5740/jaoacint.19-0129. Epub 2019 Jun 26.


Dairy-based functional beverages have been a growing segment as consumer demands for health foods have shifted focus from simply enhancing lifespan to protecting health. Green tea is often limited in use because of poor bioavailability and disagreeable taste. However, milk is considered an ideal platform for the delivery of active polyphenolic compounds in green tea. Furthermore, the antioxidant enzymatic activity and antioxidant index of polyphenols in green tea have been known to be protected through interaction with dairy proteins inside the unstable intestinal environment. In addition, consumption of green tea infused with milk has been found to have a significant impact on reducing skin wrinkles and roughness in elderly subjects, through a decrease in lipid peroxidation and a concomitant reduction in oxidative stress. A similar affinity has been observed between antioxidants in coffee and milk proteins. Dark chocolate has been known to contain significant phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The activation of protein complex NF-κB, which is responsible for cell survival, was found to be significantly reduced upon consumption of cocoa with water, whereas consuming cocoa with milk had no effect on the bioavailability of the phenolic compounds in cocoa. The popularity of dairy as the source for polyphenol fortified beverages in the diet will be dictated by optimization of the technology for maximizing the bioavailability of the antioxidants.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Infective Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Infective Agents / metabolism
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Cacao / chemistry*
  • Coffee / chemistry*
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Milk / chemistry*
  • Milk / metabolism
  • Milk Proteins / chemistry*
  • Milk Proteins / metabolism
  • Polyphenols / chemistry*
  • Polyphenols / metabolism
  • Polyphenols / pharmacology
  • Protein Binding
  • Tea / chemistry*


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Coffee
  • Milk Proteins
  • Polyphenols
  • Tea