There is growing evidence that ketone bodies, which are derived from fatty acid oxidation and usually produced in fasting state or on high-fat diets have broad neuroprotective effects. Although the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of ketone bodies have not yet been fully elucidated, studies in recent years provided abundant shreds of evidence that ketone bodies exert neuroprotective effects through possible mechanisms of anti-oxidative stress, maintaining energy supply, modulating the activity of deacetylation and inflammatory responses. Based on the neuroprotective effects, the ketogenic diet has been used in the treatment of several neurological diseases such as refractory epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and traumatic brain injury. The ketogenic diet has great potential clinically, which should be further explored in future studies. It is necessary to specify the roles of components in ketone bodies and their therapeutic targets and related pathways to optimize the strategy and efficacy of ketogenic diet therapy in the future.
Keywords: ketogenic diet; ketone bodies; neurological diseases; neuroprotection; underlying mechanisms.