Background: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a valuable resuscitative adjunct in a variety of clinical settings. In resource-limited or emergency environments, REBOA may be required with delayed or absent image-guidance or verification. Catheter insertion lengths may be informed by making computed tomography (CT) correlations of skeletal landmarks with vascular lengths.
Methods: Between 2000 and 2015 at a single civilian tertiary care center, 2,247 trauma patients with CT imaging were identified, yielding 1,789 patients with adequate contrast opacification of the arterial system in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Individual scans were analyzed using MATLAB software, with custom high-throughput image processing algorithms applied to correlate centerline vascular anatomy with musculoskeletal landmarks. Data were analyzed using R version 3.3.
Results: The median centerline distance from the skin access to the aortic bifurcation was longer by 0.3 cm on the right than on the left side. Median aortic zone I length was 21.6 (interquartile range, 20.3-22.9) cm, while zone III was 8.7 (7.8-9.5) cm. Torso extent (TE) correlation to zone I was much higher than that for zone III (R2, 0.58 vs. 0.26 (right) and 0.58 vs. 0.27 (left); p < 0.001). Assuming a 4-cm balloon length, optimal fixed insertion length would be 48 cm and 28 cm for zones I and III (error, 0.4% vs. 33.3%), respectively, although out of zone placements can be reduced if adjusted for TE (error, 0% vs. 26.4%).
Conclusion: Computed tomography morphometry suggests that a fixed REBOA catheter insertion length of 48 cm for zone I and 28 cm for zone III is optimal (on average, for average-height individuals), with improved accuracy by formulaic adjustments for TE. High residual error for zone III placement may require redesign of existing catheter balloon lengths or consideration of the relative risk associated with placing the balloon catheter too low or too high.
Level of evidence: Prognostic/epidemiological, level III.