Antimicrobial Mechanism of Hydroquinone

Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2019 Dec;189(4):1291-1303. doi: 10.1007/s12010-019-03067-1. Epub 2019 Jun 28.


With growing concern about the possible risks and side effects of antibiotic drugs, more and more natural products with antibacterial activity are studied as the substitutes. In this paper, the antibacterial activity of hydroquinone and arbutin in Ainsliaea bonatii was investigated, which both displayed relatively strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (SA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and extended spectrum β-lactamase S. aureus (ESBL-SA). The antibacterial mechanism of hydroquinone had been explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and bacterial extracellular protein leakage. Results showed that hydroquinone could destroy the bacterial cell wall and membrane, increase permeability, lead leakage of intracellular substance affect synthesis of protein, and influence expression of genes.

Keywords: Ainsliaea bonatii; Antibacterial mechanism; Arbutin; Hydroquinone; Staphylococcus aureus.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Arbutin / chemistry
  • Arbutin / pharmacology*
  • Hydroquinones / chemistry
  • Hydroquinones / pharmacology*
  • Lamiaceae / chemistry*
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / metabolism*
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / ultrastructure


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Hydroquinones
  • Arbutin
  • hydroquinone