Characteristics of lactose-free frozen yogurt with κ-carrageenan and corn starch as stabilizers

J Dairy Sci. 2019 Sep;102(9):7838-7848. doi: 10.3168/jds.2019-16556. Epub 2019 Jun 27.


Frozen yogurt is a type of dairy product that is considered to be a more healthful alternative to conventional ice cream due to its lower fat content and the presence of viable lactic acid bacteria. Lactose-free products are a growing trend in the dairy industry, and lactose-free yogurts and ice creams can both be found on the market. However, lactose-free frozen yogurt has not yet reached the market. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of adding κ-carrageenan (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15%) and corn starch (1, 2, and 3%) on acidity, texture, viscosity, overrun, melting properties, color attributes, and sensory characteristics of lactose-free frozen yogurts. Lactose was reduced by enzymatic hydrolysis during the fermentation process. The effectiveness of the hydrolysis was measured by HPLC, and lactose was reduced to 0.05% after 80 min of incubation with the enzyme. The addition of stabilizers did not change overrun and melting properties of frozen yogurt, but it did affect pH, titratable acidity, and color parameters. The product with 0.15% κ-carrageenan had the highest hardness and stickiness values. Moreover, κ-carrageenan had a positive effect on sensory attractiveness of lactose-free frozen yogurt, and it reduced the coarse texture in comparison with the control without stabilizers. A lactose-free frozen yogurt with good quality and nutritional characteristics was produced, particularly with the use of κ-carrageenan as stabilizer.

Keywords: corn starch; frozen yogurt; lactose hydrolysis; κ-carrageenan.

MeSH terms

  • Carrageenan / chemistry
  • Excipients / chemistry
  • Fermentation
  • Frozen Foods
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Hydrolysis
  • Lactobacillus delbrueckii / metabolism*
  • Lactose / analysis
  • Rheology
  • Starch / chemistry
  • Streptococcus thermophilus / metabolism*
  • Viscosity
  • Yogurt / analysis*
  • Yogurt / microbiology
  • Zea mays


  • Excipients
  • Carrageenan
  • Starch
  • Lactose