Crosslinked poly(Lactose) microgels and nanogels for biomedical applications

J Colloid Interface Sci. 2019 Oct 1;553:805-812. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2019.06.078. Epub 2019 Jun 25.


Hypothesis: Lactose (LAC) is a primary carbohydrate and energy source of milk has received intensive attention due to its' unique functional and nutritional properties. Many biological beneficences of LAC make it an appealing molecule to seek for designing functional interfaces. Therefore, crosslinked poly(lactose) (p(LAC)) microgel from lactose disaccharides for potential biomedical applications was pursued as biocolloids for the first time. EXPERIMENT: p(LAC) microgels prepared by chemical crosslinking with DiVinyl Sulfone (DVS) were chemically modified with ethylenediamine (EDA) to obtain amine-modified p(LAC) (p(LAC)-EDA) microgels to induce new functionalities and properties. Blood compatibilities of bare p(LAC)-EDA microgels were tested through hemolysis and blood clotting tests. Rosmarinic acid (RA) used as a model drug was loaded into p(LAC) and p(LAC)-EDA microgels to demonstrate their applicability to be used in drug loading and release applications.

Findings: A facile preparation of p(LAC) microgels with high yield, 90 ± 5% and 0.5-50 µm size range was accomplished via water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion crosslinking method. Upon chemical modification, the isoelectric point (IEP) from pH 1.8 for p(LAC) microgels changed to pH 7.7 for p(LAC)-EDA microgels, and the blood compatibility studies revealed that both microgels can be considered as blood compatible up to 2 mg/mL concentration, and only slight decrease in blood clotting index (BCI) of p(LAC)-EDA microgels was observed. Rosmarinic Acid (RA) was demonstrated to be released up to 4 days in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) with a linear release profile for p(LAC)-EDA microgels.

Keywords: Biocolloid; Drug delivery; Functional interface; Lactose microgel/nanogel; Sugar particles.

MeSH terms

  • Biomedical Research
  • Cross-Linking Reagents / chemical synthesis
  • Cross-Linking Reagents / chemistry*
  • Lactose / chemical synthesis
  • Lactose / chemistry*
  • Microgels / chemistry*
  • Molecular Structure
  • Particle Size
  • Polymers / chemical synthesis
  • Polymers / chemistry*
  • Surface Properties


  • Cross-Linking Reagents
  • Microgels
  • Polymers
  • Lactose