Classification of vestibular signs and examination techniques: Nystagmus and nystagmus-like movements

J Vestib Res. 2019;29(2-3):57-87. doi: 10.3233/VES-190658.


This paper presents a classification and definitions for types of nystagmus and other oscillatory eye movements relevant to evaluation of patients with vestibular and neurological disorders, formulated by the Classification Committee of the Bárány Society, to facilitate identification and communication for research and clinical care. Terminology surrounding the numerous attributes and influencing factors necessary to characterize nystagmus are outlined and defined. The classification first organizes the complex nomenclature of nystagmus around phenomenology, while also considering knowledge of anatomy, pathophysiology, and etiology. Nystagmus is distinguished from various other nystagmus-like movements including saccadic intrusions and oscillations.View accompanying videos at

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Eye Movements / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Nystagmus, Pathologic / diagnosis*
  • Nystagmus, Pathologic / physiopathology
  • Ocular Motility Disorders / classification
  • Ocular Motility Disorders / diagnosis
  • Saccades / physiology
  • Terminology as Topic*
  • Vestibular Diseases / classification
  • Vestibular Diseases / diagnosis
  • Vestibular Function Tests* / classification
  • Vestibular Function Tests* / methods
  • Vestibular Function Tests* / standards
  • Vestibule, Labyrinth / physiopathology