Aims: Psychological factors play a critical role in patient presentation, satisfaction, and outcomes. Pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression are important to consider, as they are associated with poorer outcomes and are potentially modifiable. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression in patients with a range of hip pathology and to evaluate their relationship with patient-reported psychosocial and functional outcome measures.
Patients and methods: Patients presenting to a tertiary-centre specialist hip clinic were prospectively evaluated for outcomes of pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression. Validated assessments were undertaken such as: the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Patient characteristics and demographics were also recorded. Multiple linear regression modelling, with adaptive least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) variable selection, was used for analysis.
Results: A total of 328 patients were identified for inclusion, with diagnoses of hip dysplasia (DDH; n = 50), femoroacetabular impingement (FAI; n = 55), lateral trochanteric pain syndrome (LTP; n = 23), hip osteoarthrosis (OA; n = 184), and avascular necrosis of the hip (AVN; n = 16) with a mean age of 31.0 years (14 to 65), 38.5 years (18 to 64), 63.7 years (20 to 78), 63.5 years (18 to 91), and 39.4 years (18 to 71), respectively. The percentage of patients with abnormal levels of pain catastrophizing, anxiety, or depression was: 22.0%, 16.0%, and 12.0% for DDH, respectively; 9.1%, 10.9%, and 7.3% for FAI, respectively; 13.0%, 4.3%, and 4.3% for LTP, respectively; 21.7%, 11.4%, and 14.1% for OA, respectively; and 25.0%, 43.8%, and 6.3% for AVN, respectively. HADS Anxiety (HADSA) and Hip Disability Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Activities of Daily Living subscale (HOOS ADL) predicted the PCS total (adjusted R2 = 0.4599). Age, HADS Depression (HADSD), and PCS total predicted HADSA (adjusted R2 = 0.4985). Age, HADSA, patient's percentage of perceived function, PCS total, and HOOS Quality of Life subscale (HOOS QOL) predicted HADSD (adjusted R2 = 0.5802).
Conclusion: Patients with hip pathology may exhibit significant pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression. Identifying these factors and understanding the impact of psychosocial function could help improve patient treatment outcomes. Perioperative multidisciplinary assessment may be a beneficial part of comprehensive orthopaedic hip care. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:800-807.
Keywords: Anxiety; Depression; Femoroacetabular impingement; Greater trochanteric pain syndrome; Hip dysplasia; Hip osteoarthritis; Pain catastrophizing.