The steep increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D), in the Western world after World War II, cannot be explained solely by genetic factors but implies that this rise must be due to crucial interactions between predisposing genes and environmental changes. Three parallel phenomena in early childhood - the dynamic development of the immune system, maturation of the gut microbiome, and the appearance of the first T1D-associated autoantibodies - raise the question whether these phenomena might reflect causative relationships. Plenty of novel data on the role of the microbiome in the development of T1D has been published over recent years and this review summarizes recent findings regarding the associations between islet autoimmunity, T1D, and the intestinal microbiota.
Keywords: Dysbiosis; Microbiota; Mycobiota; Type 1 diabetes; Virome.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.