External hemorrhoidal disease in child and teenage: Clinical presentations and risk factors

Pak J Med Sci. 2019;35(3):696-700. doi: 10.12669/pjms.35.3.442.


Objective: Hemorrhoidal disease (HD), though mostly seen in adults, has recently emerged as a common problem among children. However, the diagnosis and treatment of HD in children is mostly based on the data obtained in adult studies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate risk factors, diagnostic and treatment modalities in the children diagnosed with external HD.

Methods: The study was conducted at Sakarya University Medical School Pediatric Surgery Department between January 2012 and July 2018. We reviewed children who were diagnosed as having HD at Pediatric Surgery clinic. Age, gender, presenting symptoms, physical examination findings, risk factors, and treatment outcomes were evaluated for each patient.

Results: The study included 56 patients with a mean age of 140.8±45.2 months. The patients comprised 48 (85.7%) boys and 8 (14.3%) girls. Constipation and a positive family history were the most common risk factor (n=33; 58.9%, n=29; 51.8%, respectively). Conservative treatment was performed in 53 (94.6%) patients. Recurrence was observed in 5 (8.9%) and skin tag was detected in 6 (10.7%) patients.

Conclusions: External HD mostly occurs in boys in their second decade of life. Positive family history and constipation were the most common risk factors in our patients. Conservative treatment is sufficient for the management of external HD in children because of its low recurrence rates.

Keywords: Child; Diagnosis; External hemorrhoid; Risk factors; Treatment.