Multi-Indicator Approach for Characterising Urban Green Space Provision at City and City-District Level in Germany

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jun 28;16(13):2300. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16132300.


This paper addresses the question of how a sustainable urban development can be supported through simple measured quantities in the context of the specific provision of green space and open space. The specific provision of green space is analysed based on a combination of six indicators that describe, on the one hand, the access of inhabitants to green spaces and on the other hand, the settlement character as well as the strong anthropogenic imprint on the urban landscape. The indicators were calculated and combined in a 9-cell matrix for classifying the areas studied. The implementation was carried out at two scales for all German cities with at least 50,000 inhabitants as well as exemplarily for city districts of eight big cities. The calculated indicator values for representing green characteristics decrease with increasing number of inhabitants, whereas the opposite relationship was obtained for the indicators of the grey characteristics. We show how the approach provides an in-depth morphological assessment of German cities ranking their scores from low to the high presence of grey/green characteristics.

Keywords: ecosystem service; green characteristic; green space access; grey characteristic; hemeroby; settlement density; soil sealing.

MeSH terms

  • Built Environment*
  • Cities
  • City Planning*
  • Germany