GPP (Composition of Ganoderma Lucidum Poly-saccharides and Polyporus Umbellatus Poly-saccharides) Enhances Innate Immune Function in Mice

Nutrients. 2019 Jun 28;11(7):1480. doi: 10.3390/nu11071480.


Modern research has found that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) and Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharides (PUP) mainly exhibit immunoregulation. However, the immune function of a polysaccharide composition consisting of GLP and PUP has not been studied. In this study, we developed a polysaccharide composition consisting of GLP and PUP in a ratio of 3:1 (named GPP). The immunoregulation of GPP was detected in RAW264.7 macrophages. Then, the acute oral toxicity of GPP and the effect of GPP on immunoregulation in mice was detected. The results showed that GPP enhanced the function of macrophage RAW264.7 cells through improving phagocytic ability, nitric oxide (NO) production and the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. GPP belonged to the non-toxic grade in mice. Moreover, GPP significantly improved macrophage phagocytic function and the activity of natural killer (NK) cells after being administered to mice at a dose of 0, 3.6, 120, 360 mg/kg body weight (mg/kg BW) orally for 30 days. Taken together, these findings suggested that GPP moderately regulated immune function in mice, which contributes to the further development and utilization of GLP and PUP in immune function.

Keywords: GPP; Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides; Immunoregulation; Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharides.

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / isolation & purification
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Female
  • Immunity, Innate / drug effects*
  • Interleukin-10 / genetics
  • Interleukin-10 / metabolism
  • Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects*
  • Killer Cells, Natural / immunology
  • Killer Cells, Natural / metabolism
  • Macrophages / drug effects*
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / genetics
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Phagocytosis / drug effects
  • Polyporus* / chemistry
  • Polysaccharides / isolation & purification
  • Polysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • Reishi* / chemistry
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • IL10 protein, mouse
  • Polysaccharides
  • Tnf protein, mouse
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interleukin-10
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, mouse