Pleiotropic Chemotherapy to Abrogate Glioblastoma Multiforme Migration/Invasion

Anticancer Res. 2019 Jul;39(7):3423-3427. doi: 10.21873/anticanres.13487.


Current clinical failure to cure primary glioblastoma multiforme in virtually all adult patients is due to genetic aberrations, molecular heterogeneity, and clonal evolution of tumor stem and differentiated cells within the core tumor, leading to their migration, invasion and proliferation in normal surrounding and in distant cerebral tissue sites. These factors are the causes of targeted drug resistance, inadequate surgical removal, and inadequate radio-therapeutic interventions. Resolution of this clinical conundrum may be found in administration of Withaferin A alone or in combination with pleiotropic drugs which address aberrant molecules and pathways promoting tumor cell motility, migration, invasion and proliferation.

Keywords: Glioblastoma multiforme; invasion; migration; motility; pleiotropic drugs; proliferation; review; withaferin A.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • Cell Movement / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Glioblastoma / drug therapy*
  • Glioblastoma / pathology
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Withanolides / pharmacology
  • Withanolides / therapeutic use*


  • Withanolides