The strategy for improving the treatment of leishmaniasis by the World Health Organization, is the development of new drugs and combination therapy. The aim of this survey was to investigate the effect of amphotericin B (AmB) in combination with selenium, in a simple or niosomal form, on Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) by in vitro advanced assays. In this study, a niosomal formulation of AmB with selenium was prepared and characterized based on size and morphology. Using MTT assay, macrophage model, flow cytometry, and qPCR, the cytotoxicity and efficiency of the niosomal formulation and simple form of combination were evaluated. No toxicity was reported for both the niosomal and simple form of the combination. The niosomal formulation significantly showed higher inhibitory effect on the promastigote and amastigote forms of L. tropica than simple combination form. Interleukin (IL)-10 significantly decreased while the level of IL-12 and metacasoase as Th-1 activator significantly increased (P < 0.001). The findings of this study indicated that niosomes are the stable carriers for this combination, easy to produce and provide promising results as an effective formulation in the inhibition of extracellular and intracellular forms of L. tropica in compared with simple combination form.
Keywords: Amphotericin B; Gene expression; Leishmania tropica; Niosome; Selenium.