Background: There is considerable variability in the prevalence of birth defects among racial/ethnic groups. This study estimated birth defect prevalence among the less studied non-Hispanic (NH) Asian/Pacific Islander (PI) and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in Texas relative to NH Whites.
Methods: Data were obtained from the Texas Birth Defect Registry from 1999 to 2015 for deliveries to Texas-resident women who were NH White, NH Asian/PI, or AI/AN. This covers a live birth population of 2.6 million. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for NH Asian/PIs and AI/ANs (relative to NH Whites) for 44 birth defects using Poisson regression adjusting for maternal age.
Results: After adjustment there were 33 statistically significant prevalence ratios (aPRs). Among NH Asian/PIs, 23 defects had a lower aPR (0.38-0.86) and three defects had a higher aPR (1.19-2.50). AI/ANs had one defect with a significantly lower aPR (0.64) and six with a higher aPR (1.36-4.63).
Conclusions: Non-Hispanic Asian/PIs generally have a lower prevalence ratio for many birth defects while AI/ANs have a higher prevalence ratio compared to NH Whites. These findings update the limited literature on this topic and warrant additional research to identify the true associations across a range of birth defects among these understudied racial/ethnic groups.
Keywords: Alaska Natives; American Indians; Asians; birth defects; congenital defects.
© 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.