Application of Ti 3 C 2 MXene Quantum Dots for Immunomodulation and Regenerative Medicine

Adv Healthc Mater. 2019 Aug;8(16):e1900569. doi: 10.1002/adhm.201900569. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Abstract

Inflammation is tightly linked to tissue injury. In regenerative medicine, immune activation plays a key role in rejection of transplanted stem cells and reduces the efficacy of stem cell therapies. Next-generation smart biomaterials are reported to possess multiple biologic properties for tissue repair. Here, the first use of 0D titanium carbide (Ti3 C2 ) MXene quantum dots (MQDs) for immunomodulation is presented with the goal of enhancing material-based tissue repair after injury. MQDs possess intrinsic immunomodulatory properties and selectively reduce activation of human CD4+ IFN-γ+ T-lymphocytes (control 87.1 ± 2.0%, MQDs 68.3 ± 5.4%) while promoting expansion of immunosuppressive CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (control 5.5 ± 0.7%, MQDs 8.5 ± 0.8%) in a stimulated lymphocyte population. Furthermore, MQDs are biocompatible with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived fibroblasts. Finally, Ti3 C2 MQDs are incorporated into a chitosan-based hydrogel to create a 3D platform with enhanced physicochemical properties for stem cell delivery and tissue repair. This composite hydrogel demonstrates increased conductivity while maintaining injectability and thermosensitivity. These findings suggest that this new class of biomaterials may help bridge the translational gap in material and stem cell-based therapies for tissue repair and treatment of inflammatory and degenerative diseases.

Keywords: MXene; inflammation; quantum dots; tissue engineering; titanium carbide.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors / pharmacology
  • Immunomodulation / drug effects*
  • Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit / metabolism
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / drug effects
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / drug effects
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Quantum Dots*
  • Regenerative Medicine / methods*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / metabolism

Substances

  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit

Grant support