[Analysis of actual home nutrition of urban children of pre-school and school age]

Vopr Pitan. 2019;88(3):69-77. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2019-10031. Epub 2019 May 20.
[Article in Russian]

Abstract

The actual nutrition of the child population reflects the influence of both the socioeconomic conditions in the country and the local social environment of the child, while forming a reserve of adaptive opportunities and health in general. Aim. Analysis of the actual home nutrition of urban children of preschool and school age. Material and methods. A retrospective study was conducted to assess the actual nutrition of children and adolescents at home, living in the city of Perm. The method of 24-hour (daily) dietary recall for the weekend preceding the survey was used. Hygienic assessment of nutrition was made in accordance with the age physiological requirements. The observation group included children of preschool age and children who were studying in elementary, middle and high school. The total sample size was 717 people (351 boys and 366 girls). Results and discussion. The rations of all analyzed age groups were deficient in vitamins B1, B2, C, A, E and calcium, in addition to vitamin E, protein and total energy in preschool age. Nutrition was unbalanced by the content of macronutrients: against the background of a sufficient protein quota in total dietary calorie intake, an excess of fats along with a lack of vegetable fats, animal proteins and total carbohydrates were found. Consumption of individual products didn't always depend on the age. The main contribution to the daily calorie intake was made by inexpensive low-density foods - confectionery, sugar and fats (37-44% of energy). Products of mass consumption, bread, cereals and flour provided 21-25% of energy; milk and dairy products - 15% at a younger age and half as high in high school students; meat, poultry and fish, on the contrary, provided 15-17% in schoolchildren and less in the preschool age group; the share of fruits and vegetables was minimal in each of the age groups (3-6%). The actual diet of children and adolescents at home did not meet the physiological requirements. More than half of children had 3-fold meals, the intervals between meals reached 8 hours; the distribution of calories in meals was irrational, especially among older students, due to the increase in calorie intake in the afternoon. Conclusion. Home diet of urban children of preschool and school age on weekends did not comply with well-known principles and was associated with an irrational food set.

Keywords: actual nutrition; chemical composition of diets; children; diet; food package; schoolchildren.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dairy Products
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Energy Intake*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Minerals / administration & dosage
  • Nutrition Surveys*
  • Nutritional Status*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Russia
  • Urban Population*
  • Vegetables
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage

Substances

  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins