A second-price auction with eye movement recordings was used to investigate consumer preferences for labels disclosing the presence and absence of specific types of insecticides and to explore the relationship between visual attention and consumer purchasing behaviors. Findings contribute to the literature in the following ways. First, visual attention pattern was endogenously determined by personal knowledge and pollinator conservation activities. Less knowledgeable or less engaged participants fixated more and for longer durations on the product as a whole rather than other information. Secondly, the first and last gaze cascade effect was confirmed by identifying a significant negative impact of participants' first and last gaze visits on neonicotinoid labels on their bid values. Third, new evidence was added to the existing literature that the link between visual attention and consumer valuation and preference may be weak. Our results suggest that visual attention could provide useful information toward understanding participants' bidding behaviors; however, evidence indicates that visual attention measures may not be directly linked with decision making.
Keywords: gaze cascade effect; neonicotinoid labels; second-price auctions; total visit duration; visual fixation duration; visual fixations.