Inhibition of VE-PTP, an endothelial receptor-type tyrosine phosphatase, triggers phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Tie-2, which leads to the suppression of inflammation-induced vascular permeability. Analyzing the underlying mechanism, we show here that inhibition of VE-PTP and activation of Tie-2 induce tyrosine phosphorylation of FGD5, a GTPase exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42, and stimulate its translocation to cell contacts. Interfering with the expression of FGD5 blocks the junction-stabilizing effect of VE-PTP inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Likewise, FGD5 is required for strengthening cortical actin bundles and inhibiting radial stress fiber formation, which are each stimulated by VE-PTP inhibition. We identify Y820 of FGD5 as the direct substrate for VE-PTP. The phosphorylation of FGD5-Y820 is required for the stabilization of endothelial junctions and for the activation of Cdc42 by VE-PTP inhibition but is dispensable for the recruitment of FGD5 to endothelial cell contacts. Thus, activation of FGD5 is a two-step process that comprises membrane recruitment and phosphorylation of Y820. These steps are necessary for the junction-stabilizing effect stimulated by VE-PTP inhibition and Tie-2 activation.
Keywords: RPTP; Tie-2; cell adhesion; junctions; vascular permeability.
© 2019 The Authors.